Recombinant Adenovirus Based Tuberculosis Vaccine (TB)
Tuberculosis (TB) refers to a common infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is thought to have infected one third of the world¡¯s population, where most infections are latent a
nd asymptomatic, which, if left untreated, may eventually progress to active disease. TB causes around 2 million deaths annually, especially in immune-compromised populations. Therefore, its prevention and control still remains a major challenge for human health. China has the world¡¯s second largest TB burden with roughly 1.3 million new cases each year. The situation becomes even more aggravated with the occurrence of multi-drug-resistance and co-infection with AIDS. At present, we still rely on bacillus Calmette¨CGu¨¦rin (BCG) to control the dissemination of TB. As the only currently available vaccine, BCG is widely used in most developing countries. However, its usage entails the following disadvantages:
1)It only confers protection for up to 10-15 years in newborns while people of 15-35 years old are most susceptible to TB infection. Revaccination fails to enhance the immunity levels against M. tuberculosis;
2)It does not control TB caused by reactivation of latent M. tuberculosis infection, the main mode of transmission;
3)BCG is not safe to be used in HIV-infected individuals.
Consequently, we are in urgent need of a new TB vaccine with better safety and efficacy. To this end, CanSino has contributed lots of efforts to develop a novel recombinant TB vaccine as a booster for BCG vaccination in both adults and young children. So far, this vaccine has been finished Phase I clinical trials in Canada.
Review the details of Phase I clinical trials.